Live Music Exchange Resources Archive

‘I’m there to play music not break up fights’: gigging entertainers’ experiences of alcohol-related misbehaviour by audiences and its impact on performance – Alasdair Forsyth, Jemma C. Lennox and Martin Cloonan (2016)

Article on how musicians deal with inebriated audiences, based on qualitative research, and exploring whether musicians require training in alcohol-related issues.  

A Cure for the Soul? The Benefit of Live Music in the General Hospital – H Moss, E Nolan, D O’Neill (2007)

From 2005 to 2006 a professional orchestra (the Irish Chamber Orchestra) performed in a university teaching hospital with the aims of bringing live music to patients who could not access traditional concert venues and of improving quality of life for patients and staff.  

The Show Must Go On Report: Environmental Impact Report and Vision for the UK Festival Industry – Powerful Thinking (2015)

The Show Must Go On report was conceived as a festival industry response to the Paris climate change talks in 2015.  

Music: A snapshot of Sheffield’s music sector – University of Sheffield and Sensoria Festival (2015)

A report outlining how Sheffield is a leading Music City with 788 organisations active in the music sector, 465 active bands, 70 rehearsal rooms and innovation across all music genres – including electronic, folk, free noise and rock.  

LIVE DMA Survey 2015 – LIVE DMA

A survey of LIVE DMA member organisations, covering mostly small to medium venues in Spain, Belgium, Denmark, France, Norway and the Netherlands, covering topics such as ticket sales and level of subsidy.  

The Edinburgh Live Music Census Report – Adam Behr and Emma Webster with Matt Brennan

A report containing the findings of the Edinburgh live music census, held in June 2015, and subsequent recommendations to Edinburgh City Council.  

Association of Independent Festivals: Six Year Report 2014 – Emma Webster

This report, written by LMX’s own Emma Webster to celebrate the AIF’s sixth birthday, places the festival sector in its historical context and looks ahead to the future to see the issues currently facing festival promoters, with a focus on the AIF’s member festivals.  

Live Music Matters: Planning for Live Music and Performance in Sydney: 2013 Live Music and Performance Action Plan – City of Sydney Live Music and Live Performance Taskforce

The City of Sydney’s Live Music and Live Performance Action Plan 2013, which contains a range of recommendations as to how to encourage a healthy live music ecology.  

A Dynamic Mapping of the UK’s Creative Industries – Hasan Bakhshi, Alan Freeman and Peter Higgs (Nesta) (2013)

Author(s): Hasan Bakhshi, Alan Freeman and Peter HiggsPublisher: NestaDate: January 2013 Click here to read the full report This paper argues that, despite its strengths, the UK Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) classification of the creative industries contains inconsistencies which need to be addressed to make it fully fit for purpose. It presents an improved methodology which retains …  

The Cultural Value of Live Music from the Pub to the Stadium: Getting Beyond the Numbers – Adam Behr, Matt Brennan and Martin Cloonan (2014)

This report was produced as part of the Arts and Humanities Council’s (AHRC) Cultural Value project and with the co-operation of UK Music, the Musicians’ Union and PRS for Music. It looks behind the headline numbers to examine the relationships between venues and provide a qualitative illustration of the live music ecology in three locations – Camden, Glasgow and Leeds.  

What Can Participation in the Practice of Folk Music Teach Us About Participation in the Arts More Widely? – A Report for the AHRC – Katriona Holmes (2014)

Author(s): Katriona HolmesPublisher: Arts and Humanities Research CouncilDate: 2014 This report explores the meaning of the term ‘arts participation’ and considers how participation is understood and supported in the UK. It does so by looking at some of the ways that people participate in British folk music, both formally and informally, and considers the implications of this for enhancing arts participation in the …  

The Economic Contribution of the Core UK Music Industry – UK Music/Jonathan Todd (2013)

Author(s): Jonathan Todd/UK MusicPublisher: UK MusicDate: 2013 UK Music has released an in-depth report into the music industry’s contribution to the economy.  UK Music has assessed the economic contribution of the music industry in terms of GVA, exports and employment. £3.5bn the economic contribution of the core UK music industry This is made up of: £1.6bn from musicians, composers and songwriters; £634m from …  

Imagine: The value of music heritage tourism in the UK – UK Music (2014)

Author(s): UK MusicPublisher: UK MusicDate: 2014 Imagine is a report which looks at the unrealised potential of music heritage tourism in the UK. Millions of music tourists make pop pilgrimages to museums, take tours and visit the homes of the UK’s most loved bands every year. UK Music’s report examines how music tourists translate pop into pounds. Liverpool has been a standard …  

Wish You Were Here: Music Tourism’s Contribution to the UK Economy – UK Music /Oxford Economics (2013)

Author(s): Oxford EconomicsPublisher: UK Music/Visit BritainDate: October 2013 UK Music have identified that 6.5 million music loving tourists attended a festival or gig, generating £2.2 billion spending in the process. The study reveals that tourists at live music events not only add billions to the UK economy but offer astounding regional tourism benefits, motivating Britain-wide travel. Music tourism provides a massive boost to the UK’s nations, …  

The Fair Play Guide – The Musicians’ Union (2012)

Author(s): The Musicians’ UnionPublisher: The Musicians’ UnionDate: 2012 With more practical guidance and advice, musicians can avoid unfair deals and just play the most worthwhile shows. To aid MU members, following extensive research, an advisory resource has been created for both musicians and promoters. The MU’s ‘Fair Play’ guide contains practical advice about co-promotion shows and other live issues, such as showcase …  

PRS for Music 2013 Financial Results Briefing Paper, April 2014

PRS for Music’s 2013 financial results briefing paper showed that the collection society achieved an income of £665.7m, a 3.7% increase on 2012 – live music earned £25.7m.  

Scotland on Tour: Strategies for Promoting the Scottish Music Industry – Adam Behr and Matt Brennan

A report produced from research conducted under an AHRC Cultural Engagement grant, looking at state provision of support for Scottish music industry practitioners, with a particular emphasis on showcasing activities.  

Sustainable Production Guide – Julie’s Bicycle (2013)

Julie’s Bicycle guide contains the most up-to-date and comprehensive guidance to help you embed good environmental sustainability practice at the heart of your production.  

New World Symphony: Summary Report: 2010 – 2013 Concert Format Assessment – Alan Brown and Rebecca Ratzkin (2013)

Executive summary of the results of New World Symphony’s trial of four different concert formats, designed to attract new and different audiences.  

The Rocktober Report: The Live Music Act, One Year On – UK Music / Musicians’ Union

Report co-produced by the Musicians’ Union and UK Music which assesses the impact of the Live Music Act 2012, published one year after the introduction of the Act.  

“One more tune!” The encore ritual in live music events – Emma Webster

A paper examining the curious phenomenon of the encore ritual in live music events, which argues that while the encore began as a spontaneous display of audience enthusiasm, it has now become an expected and ritualized part of a live music performance.  

Cultural and Community Distribution Deregulation Bill [HL] – Second Reading

The text from the Second Reading of Lord Clement-Jones’ Cultural and Community Distribution Deregulation Bill in the House of Lords, July 5 2013.  

The UK Festival Market Report 2010 – Matt Brennan and Emma Webster

The UK Festival Market Report 2010 includes a detailed industry overview and the results of that year’s UK Festival Census.  

Popular music, mapping, and the characterization of Liverpool – Brett Lashua, Sara Cohen and John Schofield (2009)

Article examining the iconic Liverpool venues of the Cavern Club, Eric’s Club, and Cream, but which ‘decentres’ the ‘master map’ of the three venues by paying attention to hidden or alternative histories of the city’s live music scene.  

Sponsorship, funding and strategic function: Carling Festival and V-festival – Paul Walters and Razaq Raj (2004)

Book chapter that discusses two outdoor festivals in the UK with reference to the public entertainment licenses, economic impact to local communities and how principal sponsors add to the dynamic nature and long-term sustainability of outdoor festivals.  

Experimenting with Fandom, Live Music, and the Internet: Applying Insights from Music Fan Culture to New Media Production – Tim Wall and Andrew Dubber (2010)

This article maps and theorizes online jazz fandom activities around live music, and then reports on applied experimental work that the authors undertook with jazz promoters and musicians to explore ways in which live music can be situated in the activities of online fandom.  

The Landscape of Music Festivals in Australia – Breda McCarthy (2013)

Book chapter on the changing landscape of festivals in Australia which explores the human needs fulfilled by music and understand why such festivals and events have become so popular with policy makers and researchers alike.  

Outdoor music festivals: Cacophonous consumption or melodious moderation? – Theresa Martinus, John McAlaney, Liam J. McLaughlin, Hilary Smith

A study examining the self-reported alcohol and drug behaviours of attendees at a music festival in Scotland.  

Financial survey of the music industry in Finland 2011 – Eero Tolppanen, Tommi Tuomainen, and Elements Music (2012)

A report estimating the total revenues of the Finnish music industries, including recorded, live, and publishing.  

The British pop music festival phenomenon – Chris Stone (2008)

Chapter covering music festivals in Britain as part of a wider exploration of festivals in an international context.  

International Perspectives of Festivals and Events: Paradigms of Analysis – Jane Ali-Knight et al (eds.) (2008)

Edited anthology covering festivals in a range of contexts, from the Olympics through to heritage and including the British pop festival.  

Liveness in Modern Music Musicians, Technology, and the Perception of Performance – Paul Sanden (2012)

This study investigates the idea and practice of liveness in modern music, drawing on case studies including Glenn Gould and the White Stripes.  

Steering a review: some reflections on a gig – Martin Cloonan (2013)

Martin Cloonan both reports and reflects upon the author’s experience as part of the Steering Group on a project which attempted to map the main issues facing the music industries in Scotland.  

Live Music Exchange – Simon Frith (2013)

Simon Frith reflects on the Live Music Exchange project in the context of ‘knowledge exchange’.  

Alien invasions: the British Musicians’ Union and foreign musicians – Martin Cloonan and Matt Brennan (2013)

This article examines the policies of the British Musicians’ Union towards the employment of musicians who were not UK citizens in the period from the 1920s to the 1950s, with particular emphasis on an alleged ban on American musicians entering the country.  

Researching live music: some thoughts on policy implications – Martin Cloonan (2011)

Martin Cloonan offers some initial impressions of the potential policy implications of conducting research in to live music; the article examines issues of regulation, the black economy and sharp business practices, and developments in concert ticketing  

Live Music Census 2012 – Dobe Newton, Music Victoria (2012)

A world first- taking a census of all the musical activity in a city on one night, illustrating Melbourne’s music scene and providing rich data regarding music making and consumption in the state of Victoria in both small and large scale contexts.  

Gigographies: where popular musicians play – Dave Laing (2009)

Dave Laing maps popular music performance sites to understand the links between performers and their audiences, drawing on case studies including Elton John, and Manchester in the 1960s.  

Economic Insight: Adding up the UK music industry 2011 – PRS for Music (2012)

The fourth edition of PRS for Music’s Adding Up the UK music industry paper explores the value of the music industry and its income streams for 2011.  

Economic Insight 15: Adding up the music industry for 2008 – Will Page / PRS for Music (2009)

Report by PRS for Music showing the ‘big numbers’ for the music industries in 2008.  

The Good Food for Festivals Guide – Food Legacy / Ethical Eats / A Greener Festival / Sustain (2012)

A guide providing practical advice for festival and other event organisers in order that they can celebrate the best of fresh, delicious and sustainable food.  

Survey: Audience Concerns about Environmental Impact of Live Music – A Greener Festival / Buckinghamshire New University (2012)

Survey by AIF and Buckinghamshire New University into audience attitudes towards the environmental impact of the events they attend.  

Carbon Assessment of Ticketing Delivery Systems – En-Count (2013)

A study that conducts a comparative life cycle carbon audit to examine the environmental burdens of ticketing options. It adopts a holistic perspective and models each activity involved in the ticketing life cycle – from ticket printing and email creation to delivery and processing.  

I’m waiting for the band: protraction and provocation at rock concerts – Richard Witts (2005)

An examination of the possible motivations, and practical aspects, of late arrival on stage at rock gigs and the ‘expectant void’ that it leaves for the audience.  

Music: Arts Council Investment Strategy – Arts Council England (2012)

Arts Council England sets out its investment strategy for music for 2012-2015.  

Live music and urban landscape: mapping the beat in Liverpool – Sara Cohen (2012)

Paper describing a mapping project in Liverpool which argues that live music shapes and is shaped by the urban culture within which it exists.  

Why do people (not) cough in concerts? The economics of concert etiquette – Andreas Wagener (2012)

A working paper on how concert etiquette intersects with the economics of prestige and social status, and how their implications for audiences and society.  

A History of Jazz in Britain: 1919-1950 – Jim Godbolt (2005)

An updated edition of the first truly comprehensive history of British jazz, covering American and British musicians and with additional photos and updated text.  

Government Honours for Artists – International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (2013)

Information on awards to artists offered by the governments of fourteen countries, examining over thirty awards (as distinct from grants) with details of how they are judged.  

Research into local authority responses to changing conditions for public entertainment licences on behalf of the Scottish Artists Union – Lorraine Simpson (2012)

Independent research commissioned by the Scottish Artists Union examining the impact of legislation changing the conditions for pubic entertainment licensing.  

Towards ‘pure’ sound: The case for raising audio standards at live music events – Davies Roberts (2012)

Davies Roberts, founder of Flare Audio, describes a new type of loudspeaker the produces a ‘purer’ sound, in line with tests that measure ‘waveform integrity’.  

The Economic Impact of the Cultural and Creative Industries in Oxfordshire – Oxford Inspires (2010)

An economic impact report on the cultural and creative industries (CCI) sector in Oxfordshire which also proposes practical steps for the support of the sector by development agencies such as Oxford Inspires.  

Oxford: Night Time Cultural Economy Study – Oxford Inspires / The Oxford Student Consultancy (2012)

A study of the economic impact of Oxford’s night time cultural economy, focusing on the performing arts.  

How green was my festival: Exploring challenges and opportunities associated with staging green events – Jennifer Laing and Warwick Frost (2010)

A conceptual paper exploring some of the issues encompassing the management and staging of green events along with the importance of engaging key stakeholders.  

Understanding the Links Between Performing Artists and Audiences – Roland J. Kushner (2003)

Paper analysing the market functions of intermediaries between artist and performer, such as booking agents and presenting organisations, drawing implications for enhanced effectiveness of the performing arts market.  

Green Orchestras Guide – Julie’s Bicycle (2010)

A practical and basic guide for orchestras, commissioned by ABO and Orchestras Live and authored by Julie’s Bicycle, it addresses the environmental impacts of their work: from office-based work to marketing and rehearsals.  

Green Music Guide – Julie’s Bicycle (2009)

A ‘how-to’ guide for music companies and individuals interested in greening their activities – from touring to offices, recording studios to festivals. Shows how the industry can meet London’s ambitious targets of cutting its emissions by 60% by 2025.  

Jam Packed Part 1: Audience Travel Emissions from Festivals – Julie’s Bicycle (2009)

Findings of the report First Step: UK Music Industry Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2007 which identified that annual audience travel to music events accounts for 43% of greenhouse gas emissions from the UK music industry. Of this, music festivals contribute 24% of all music audience travel emissions, 68% of the festival sector’s total emissions.  

Moving Arts: Managing the Carbon impacts of our touring – Volume 2: Orchestras – Julie’s Bicycle (2010)

Julie Bicycle’s research project that assesses the carbon impacts of bands, orchestras and theatres touring the UK and internationally. The research is funded by the music industry, the British Council, Arts Council and Orchestras Live with support from the Association of British Orchestras.  

Moving arts: Managing the carbon impacts of our touring – Volume 1: Bands – Julie’s Bicycle (2010)

Julie’s Bicycle project that assesses the carbon impacts of Bands, Orchestras and Theatres touring the UK and internationally. The research is funded by the music industry, the British Council, Arts Council and Orchestras Live with support from the Association of British Orchestras.  

Sustainable Production Guide – Julie’s Bicycle

The production process has apparent and hidden impacts. This guide navigates the environmental consequences of production through the key areas of lighting and sound, set design, set disposal, rehearsal, recording and musical instruments.  

Practical Guides: Audience Travel – Julie’s Bicycle

Audience travel is the greatest contributor to the carbon footprint of the arts. While not directly under the control of venues and companies, this guide is designed to help you exercise the influence that you have over audiences to inform them of the environmental benefits of travelling green, and provide sustainable travel options for them.  

Practical Guides: Touring – Julie’s Bicycle

Research into the impacts of touring bands, orchestras and theatres with a series of recommendations for how touring companies and productions can reduce their environmental impacts, often with little cost attached.

Practical Guides: Outdoor Events – Julie’s Bicycle

Whether festival, carnival or other out-of-doors happening, this guide outlines the key actions to make your event as environmentally friendly and low-impact as possible.  

Powerful Thinking Campaign Toolkit – Green Festival Alliance (2012)

The Powerful Thinking Campaign Toolkit is designed to help festival promoters, production managers, and power suppliers better understand energy usage on site, in order to improve efficiencies and increase the use of renewable power at festivals.  

The Power Behind Festivals: a guide to sustainable power at outdoor events – Green Festival Alliance (2012)

After 18 months of exploration into the world of temporary power, the Green Festival Alliance (GFA) has created The Power Behind Festivals; a guide to sustainable power at outdoor events.  

Live and prerecorded popular music consumption – Juan D. Montoro-Pons and Manuel Cuadrado-García (2011)

Analysis of changes to the popular music market, and the balance between the live and recorded sectors, due to shifts in consumption patterns over the previous decade.  

Social Semiotics – The Business of Live Music: Special Issue – (2012)

Introduction to a special issue of Social Semiotics dedicated to ‘the business of live music’. Outlines the contents and provides links to free articles from the journal  

The real “crossroads” of live music: the conventions of performance at open mic nights in Edinburgh – Adam Behr (2012)

Presents ethnographic work on open mic nights in Edinburgh, a hitherto under examined activity that lies in the hinterland of professional live music and serves as a junction between professional and amateur practice. Details implicit and explicit codes of behaviour and a typology of different nights.  

From Gigs to Giggs: politics, law and live music – John Street (2012)

This paper explores what it means to talk of live music as a right by looking at the ways in which courts and other actors constitute music as a political entity to which such rights might be attached, with case studies of grime artist Giggs and the merger of Live Nation and Ticketmaster.  

Patterns of listening through social media: online fan engagement with the live music experience – Lucy Bennett (2012)

This study examines the responses of fans engaged in online activity around concerts, identifying the key themes and patterns apparent within this behaviour, arguing that fans are using social media and mobile technology in an effort to contest and reshape the boundaries of live music concerts.  

The Business of Live Music: ‘Social Semiotics’ special issue editorial – Simon Frith (2012)

Editorial for special edition of Social Semiotics – explains the relationship between the articles and provides an overview of the theoretical terrain of ‘the business of live music’  

Motives of Visitors Attending Festival Events – John L. Crompton and Stacey L. McKay (1997)

Analysis of festival visitors using conceptual frameworks and outlining six broad ‘motive domains’ – cultural exploration, novelty/regression, recover equilibrium, known group socialization, external interaction/socialization, and gregariousness.  

Naked and dirty: rethinking (not) attending festivals – Kath Browne (2009)

This article draws together critical tourism studies and events tourism literature offering insights into the diverse motivations for, and barriers to, attending the predominantly lesbian and separatist feminist festival, Michigan Womyn’s Music Festival.  

Does the music matter? Motivations for attending a music festival – Heather E.Bowen and Margaret J.Daniels (2005)

Recognizing the potential for music festivals to contribute to host communities, this study aims to explore motivations for attending a large, multi-day music festival. Uses on-site interviews conducted at Celebrate Fairfax!, an annual music festival held in Virginia (USA).  

New Audiences for Classical Music: The Experiences of Non-attenders at Live Orchestral Concerts – Melissa C. Dobson (2010)

Article exploring assumptions and experiences of audience members new to classical music. Data from focus groups and interviews reveals that feelings of inclusion and participation in the performances were important predictors of the participants’ enjoyment of the concert. Considers the implications of these findings for orchestras and concert organisations.  

Understanding Jazz Audiences: Listening and Learning at the Edinburgh Jazz and Blues Festival – Karen Burland and Stephanie E.Pitts (2010)

This paper considers the ways in which jazz audiences participate in and contribute to musical events, and examines the roles that music plays in their lives and identities through analysis of a large-scale survey and in-depth interviews.  

Musicians’ Union ‘Live Music Kit’ (2012)

A ‘Live Music Kit’ provided by the Musicians’ Union containing practical and creative advice for venues to coincide with the implementation of the Live Music Act on 1 October 2012.

Collaborating in a competitive world: musicians’ working lives and understandings of entrepreneurship – Susan Coulson (2012)

Drawing on research with musicians in the North East of England, this article explores musicians’ understandings of their working lives within the new entrepreneurial agenda brought about by organizational restructuring and the emergence of the creative industries as an economic power.  

Why promote sold-out concerts? A Durkheimian analysis – Mark Duffett (2012)

The aim of this research paper is to examine why concert promoters sometimes advertise sold-out live music shows when nobody can buy tickets any longer. It suggests that the Durkheimian model illuminates a point of connection between commerce and affect in the reception of star performances.  

Dance To The Music: Fans and Socialites in the festival audience – Stephen Henderson and Emma Wood (2009)

This paper uses the Wireless Festival held in Leeds in 2008 to look at the different motivations of attendees across the two days where the programming was directed towards different music interests.  

Genre and the cultural politics of territory: The live experience of free improvisation – Chris Atton (2012)

This article is concerned with the relationship between performers and audiences in the live performance of popular music, a relationship that is examined through the concept of genre culture and a microsociological study of improvised music as a territory for behaviour.  

The economics of music festivals – Bruce Frey (1994)

This paper attempts to explain the growth in the number of classical music and opera festivals, examining demand side and supply side factors.  

Control of noise at work in music and entertainment – Sound Advice/Health and Safety Executive (2008)

Practical advice on developing noise-control strategies in the music and entertainment industries to prevent or minimise the risk of hearing damage from the performance of both live and recorded music and meet legal obligations under the Control of Noise at Work Regulations (2005).  

Disconnected – Social Mobility and the Creative Industries – Ryan Shorthouse (2010)

The creative industries are a key driver of Britain’s economic growth but the creative workforce suffers from poor social representation. A range of experts offer their thoughts on why social mobility is so low in the creative industries, and how policymakers and the industry can improve it.  

Scoping Study into the Economic Impact of the Arts and Creative Industries in Scotland – EKOS Ltd (2011)

This report presents the conclusions and recommendations from a study commissioned by Creative Scotland. The overall purpose was to identify an appropriate approach and method for examining the economic impact of the Arts and Creative Industries in Scotland.  

Engineering great moments: The production of live music – Robert Cluley (2009)

Paper investigating promoters, drawing on interviews to show how they invest aesthetic values into their live music products to attract “like‐minded” people and “engineer great moments” for audiences.  

Liberating Creativity – UK Music (2010)

A report by UK Music outlining the strength of the UK’s music industry and setting out its ambitions for the future, calling for action to support growth from both government and industry.  

Music Festivals: YouGov report – SixthSense (2012)

YouGov report on festival attendance, indicating a marked downturn between 2011 and 2012 and providing statistics of festival goers’ responses to the economic downturn and changes in the festival market.  

The event safety guide: A guide to health, safety and welfare at music and similar events (2nd edition) – Health and Safety Executive (1999)

Affectionately referred to by many as ‘The Purple Book’, the Event Safety Guide aims to help those who organise music events so that the events run safely, bringing together information needed by event organisers, contractors and employees to help them satisfy legal requirements.  

Hamsard and Academy Music: A report on the proposed acquisition of a controlling interest in Academy Music Holdings Limited by Hamsard 2786 Limited [full report / appendices and glossary] – Competition Commission (2007)

Competition Commission report into acquisitions in the live music sector – includes analysis of the popular live music industry, an overview of the state of negotiations and the effects of the proposed merger.  

Ticketmaster and Live Nation: A report on the completed merger between Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc and Live Nation, Inc [full report / appendices and glossary] – Competition Commission (2010)

Competition Commission report on the completed merger between TIcketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation.  

Ticketmaster and Live Nation: A report on the anticipated merger between Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc and Live Nation, Inc [full report / appendices and glossary] – Competition Commission (2009)

Competition Commission report into the merger between Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc and Live Nation – includes analysis of the live music industry in the UK and the competitive effects of the merger in the market for the primary retailing of tickets for live music events and in the markets for live music promotion and live music venues.  

Editorial: The Business of Live Music – Simon Frith (2011)

Introduction to a special issue on the business of live music, explaining its context, the conference from which it originated, and touching on the various aspects of the business that are covered.  

The business of authenticity: a false relation? – Nick Wilson (2011)

A paper considering the aesthetic and commercial success of the ‘early music’ movement during the 1970s and 1980s, paying particular attention to discourses of authenticity and their relationship to the market-driven commercial exploitation of this form of performance.  

Music festival sponsorship: between commerce and carnival – Chris Anderton (2011)

This paper aims to examine the cultural heritage of outdoor rock and pop music festivals in Britain since the mid-1960s, and relates it to developments in, and critiques of, corporate sponsorship in the contemporary music festival sector  

Typological trends in contemporary popular music performance venues – Robert Kronenburg (2011)

This paper seeks to explore the design of popular music performance space, focusing particularly on recent developments that are changing the form and operation of permanent venues and travelling stages.  

Researching Live Music in the UK – Some Initial Thoughts – Matt Brennan and Emma Webster (2008)

An introduction to the Live Music Research Project at the root of Live Music Exchange: conceptualising live music, the political economy of live music , typology of venues, ten themes to be explored (“ten things you never knew about live music”)  

New Audiences for the Arts. The New Audiences Programme 1998-2003 – Gill Johnson et al (2004)

This is Arts Council England’s major report on the New Audiences Programme. It represents the culmination of a five year scheme which supported audience development initiatives across the country.  

Opportunities for Growth in the UK Events Industry: Roles & responsibilities: A report to the All Party Parliamentary Group For Events – Britain for Events (2011)

Report to Parliamentary group, compiled and presented by the business visits and events industry forum- provides data about the UK festival market and licensing.  

A review of orchestral provision for Yorkshire – G. Devlin and J. Ackrill (2005)

An Arts Council England report on orchestral provision in the region – includes information about local provision, visiting orchestras, venues, promoters and local council support.  

Counting the Notes: The economic contribution of the UK music business – C. Dane and K. Manton (2002)

A report produced for the National Music Council and DCMS examining the economic significance and contribution of the UK music industries.  

The Overseas Earnings of the Music Industry – British Invisibles (1995)

Summary and analysis of the overseas earnings and payments of the British music industry for 1993, including data from the recording industry, music publishing, performance income, musical instruments, musical theatre.  

Playing Wales: the relationship between higher education and the live music industry in Wales – Paul Carr (2012)

With a focus on Wales, this report investigates the potential opportunities for collaboration between the live music industries and Higher Education in addressing the skills gap identified by Creative and Cultural Skills and others.  

Love Saves the Day: A History of American Dance Music Culture, 1970-79 – Tim Lawrence (2004)

Tells the story of American dance music culture in the 1970s – from its subterranean roots in NoHo and Hell’s Kitchen to its gaudy blossoming in midtown Manhattan and transmission through America’s suburbs and urban hotspots.  

Sustainable Event Management: A Practical Guide (Second Edition) – Meegan Jones (2014)

This book is a practical, step-by-step guide through the key aspects of how to understand and manage the impacts of events of any type and scale – with checklists for action and tools for measuring performance.  

The development of competitive advantage through sustainable event management – Stephen Henderson (2011)

This paper aims to develop thinking around the sustainable event and its contribution to competitive advantage and considers different positions that might be adopted by private and public sector organisations.  

Decline, Renewal and the City in Popular Music Culture: Beyond the Beatles – Sara Cohen (2007)

This book explores the relationship between popular music and the city using Liverpool as a case study. It highlights popular music’s unique role and significance in the making of cities, in processes of deindustrialization and in producing and promoting local culture.  

Rock Culture in Liverpool: Popular Music in the Making – Sara Cohen (1991)

This book delineates and discusses rock culture in Liverpool as a way or style of life, highlighting its associated conventions, rituals, norms, and beliefs within the city’s own unique social, economic, cultural, and political environment. It deals with the hitherto little explored music-making by ‘local’, ‘amateur’ rock bands.  

A polyethnic London carnival as a contested cultural performance – Abner Cohen (2002)

This is an attempt to articulate the potentialities of carnivals for enacting both hegemonies and oppositional political formations – both are present and this piece examines their relationship and the symbolic politics of carnivals.  

The Knebworth Rock Festivals – Chrissie Lytton-Cobbold (1986)

A large-format heavily photographic account of the festivals and gigs held at Knebworth.  

Banned! Censorship of Popular Music in Britain:1967-1992 – Martin Cloonan (1996)

This book reveals the previously hidden history of the censorship of popular music in Britain. This is detailed from the point of production in record companies, through retail outlets, attempts to prosecute records (and covers) in radio and television bans and in banned concerts and raves.  

The Politics of Pop Festivals – Michael Clarke (1982)

An academic study of festivals. Contains detailed information about free festivals, in particular East Anglia, Windsor. Touches on ‘medieval’- style fairs.  

Gigs: Jazz and the Cabaret Laws in New York City (2nd Edition) – Paul Chevigny (2005)

An account of a unique victory for musicians against repressive entertainment licensing laws with a study of the social, political, cultural and legal conditions surrounding a change in law and public attitudes toward vernacular music in New York City.  

The Complete Guide to Playing Live – Paul Charles (2004)

A guidebook to negotiating the rock circuit- from formation of an act to interacting with agents, managers and promoters, describing what they (along with technical crew) do and notes on how to work successfully with them. Includes sample expenses sheets and details about the flow of money.  

Tramps Like Us: Music and Meaning among Springsteen Fans – Daniel Cavicchi (1998)

Based on of ethnographic research amid Springsteen’s fans, and informed by the author’s own experiences as a fan, this is an interdisciplinary study of the ways in which ordinary people form special, sustained attachments to a particular artist and his songs, and of how these attachments function in their lives.  

Oh, How We Danced! The History of Ballroom Dancing in Scotland – Elizabeth Casciani (1994)

A comprehensive social history of ballroom dancing in Scotland, drawing on research and personal accounts, from the eighteenth century through to the 1990s.  

Nights in the Cellar: Bunjies Coffee House – Peter Cadle (1994)

A history of the Bunjies coffee house- central to the folk movements of the 1950s and 1960s and home to performances from artists such as Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Al Stewart, Bert Jansch and John Renbourn. Features accounts by performers and regulars.  

Sale of Tickets (Sporting and Cultural Events) Bill 2010-12 – Sharon Hodgson (2011)

A Bill to regulate the selling of tickets for certain sporting and cultural events; and for connected purposes. It failed to complete its passage through Parliament and was not passed into law.  

White Bicycles: Making Music in the 1960s – Joe Boyd (2006)

Autobiography of producer, club promoter and tour manager Joe Boyd – details his experiences of working with big names like Bob Dylan, Nick Drake and Pink Floyd, as well as portraitss of figures from jazz and folk. A first hand account of the music scene in the 1960s.  

The Land Without Music: Music, culture and society in twentieth-century Britain – Andrew Blake (1997)

An examination of how Britons have tried to find a distinctive musical voice and how musicians in Britain and its former colonies have proposed ‘national’ musics – analyses a wide range of genres and debates to emphasise music a generator of value and identity.  

Music Hall: The Business of Pleasure – Peter Bailey (ed.) (1986)

An edited collection of essays examining the history and socio-economic context of music hall from the mid nineteenth to early twentieth century.

London live : from the Yardbirds to Pink Floyd to the Sex Pistols: the inside story of live bands in the capital’s trail-blazing music clubs – Tony Bacon (1999)

A celebration of London’s live music from the 1950s to 1970s featuring eyewitness accounts and covers famous and lesser-known acts and venues. Includes colour photographs, and reproductions of tickets, posters, contracts and other memorabilia.  

Glastonbury Festival Tales – Crispin Aubrey and John Shearlaw (2004)

An oral history of the Glastonbury Festival old in the words of everyone involved with the festival, from Michael and Emily Eavis and Arabella Churchill to Glastonbury village residents and local policemen and a wealth of celebrity contributions.  

Ticket Agents in the UK – Office of Fair Trading (2005)

UK Government report with an overview of the services provided to consumers by ticket agents in the U.K. Contains overall figures for ticket sales and the split between primary and secondary sellers and recommendations for the industry.  

Can Opera Be Brought to the Masses?: A Case Study of Carmen the Opera – Graeme Currie (1994)and Carrie Hobart

Article addressing the question of whether opera can be brought to ‘the masses’ (defined as socio-economic groups other than A and B). Describes methodology used to gather data and analyses audience profile of opera-goers and non-attenders, making recommendations regarding marketing.  

Test Drive the Arts: North West Project Report – Morris Hargreaves McIntyre (1999)

A report providing an evaluation of the Test Drive: North West (TD: NW) audience development project by Arts About Manchester which used spare capacity at performances and venues to offer a ‘smart discount’ or free tickets to first-time attenders.  

Standing Room Only: Strategies for Marketing the Performing Arts – Philip Kotler and Joanne Scheff (1997)

This book applies the full spectrum of marketing principles to the performing arts industries, drawing on a wide variety of primary and secondary sources and reviewing a range of contexts from management and PR in fields such as music, theatre and dance.  

A Sound Performance – Cliff Dane, Andy Feist and Kate Manton (1999)

This publication provides a commentary on the report ‘Sound Performance – The Economic Value of Music to the United Kingdom’ which summarises the statistical dimensions of the UK music industry, with particular reference to expenditure, turnover, ‘value added’ and overseas earnings.  

House of Lords Debate on the Arts – Hansard (2006)

Record of a debate in the House of Lords begun by Lord Bragg, and with contributions from others such as Lord Lloyd-Webber and Lord Puttnam.  

Pop Festivals: Advisory [Stevenson] Committee on Pop Festivals Report and Code of Practice – HMSO (1973)

Parliamentary Committee report for the Department of the Environment on ‘Pop Festivals’ with a Code of Practice, published by HMSO.  

Pop Festivals and their Problems: Second Report of the Working Group on Pop Festivals – HMSO (1978)

Second report of a parliamentary working group on Pop Festivals.  

Free Festivals: First Report of the Working Group on Pop Festivals – HMSO (1976)

First report of a parliamentary working group on pop festivals.  

Music and the Middle Class. The Social Structure of Concert Life in London, Paris, and Vienna, 1830-1848 – William Weber (1975)

A classic text on the social history of music, bringing together sociological and historical methods to address major themes such as the role of class in cultural definition and the establishment of a musical canon.  

Setting the Record Straight. A Material History of Classical Recording – Colin Symes (2004)

A study of the materials that surround LPs and CDs as part of a cultural history of the record, and how the phonograph helped to democratise classical music by enabling it to be heard at home.  

The Birth of the Orchestra: History of an Institution, 1650-1815 – John Spitzer and Neal Zaslaw (2004)

This book traces the emergence of the orchestra from 16th-century string bands to the ‘classical’ orchestra of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and their contemporaries.  

House of Commons: Culture, Media and Sport Committee Ticket touting: Second Report of Session 2007–08 – DCMS (2007)

Report, including committee minutes along with oral and written evidence, on the matter of ‘ticket touting’- i.e: the secondary market. Contains representations from event organisers, ticket agents (including those in the secondary market).  

EU Creative Industries Funding Guide – Joanna Parker (2011)

This Funding Guide covers the main programmes which are likely to be of use to organisations operating in the Creative Industries Sector.  

Mapping the music industry in Scotland: a report – John Williamson, Martin Cloonan and Simon Frith (2003)

A report providing a map of the music industries in Scotland- with information on live and recorded music, teaching, retail and more. Includes interviews with stakeholders and case studies.  

Is live the future of music? – Will Page (2007)

Report by the chief economist for the PRS offering an economic view of how best to approach the question of whether live music will overtake the recorded sector.  

Is the price of recorded music heading towards zero? – Will Page (2006)

The paper offers a framework to help understand the economics behind the commonly held observation that the price of recorded music is ‘heading towards zero’. This economic approach helps show us how recorded music has long lost any notion of being a ‘pure private good’ and now risks becoming a ‘pure public good’.  

A survey of live music in England and Wales in 2007 – Tim Hanson, Bruce Hayward, and Andrew Phelps (2007)

This report presents the findings of a survey designed to measure the provision of live music in venues in England and Wales whose core business is not the staging of live music and to provide insight into the early effects of the Licensing Act 2003 on the staging of live music in these venues.  

The arts festival sector in Yorkshire: economic, social and cultural benefits, benchmarks and development – Philip Long and Elizabeth Owen (2006)

A report into the growing arts festival sector in Yorkshire which provides evidence of festivals’ contributions to the economic, social and cultural life of the region.  

Supporting UK musicians abroad: Funding and development opportunities for British musicians and music organisations to export and develop international markets for their work – Julia Payne and Adam Jeanes (Arts Council England / British Council) (2010)

A report exploring the funding and development opportunities for British musicians and music organisations to export and develop international markets for their work.  

Measuring the economic and social impact of the arts: a review – Michelle Reeves/Arts Council England (2002)

A review of research on the economic and social impact of the arts which identifies methodologies and key research needs, as well as providing a practical resource for those working in the field.  

National Venue & Promoter Directory: A user-friendly resource for Black-led music groups in the UK – London Arts (2002)

A venue and promoter directory to assist Black-led music organisations with business development opportunities for artists and audience development opportunities for promoters.  

Vanishing Acts: A report on the live music sector in New South Wales – Shane Homan and Bruce Johnson (2002)

Report outlining the importance of a healthy live venue environment in New South Wales, which presents the survey findings and details several recommendations.  

Building a stronger future for the arts: Arts Council of Wales Plan 2009-2012 – Arts Council of Wales (2009)

Arts Council of Wales’s strategy for 2009-2012.  

Creative Connections: a 5 years plan for developing the arts 2007-2012 – Arts Council of Northern Ireland (2007)

Arts Council of Northern Ireland’s five-year plan for developing the arts.  

Investing in Scotland’s Creative Future: Corporate Plan 2011-2014 – Creative Scotland (2011)

Creative Scotland’s investment strategy for 2011-2014.  

Achieving great art for everyone – Arts Council England (2010)

Sets out Arts Council England’s ten-year vision with five ambitious goals at its heart.  

Arts Council Plan 2011-15 – Arts Council England (2011)

Sets out what Arts Council England will do to deliver its ‘Achieving great art for everyone’ goals and priorities over the years 2011-15.  

Music policy 2007-2011 – Arts Council England (2006)

Arts Council England’s priorities for music 2007-2011.  

How to develop audiences for jazz – Jazz Development Trust and Morris Hargreaves Macintyre (2000)

This report summarises the outcomes of a major audience development initiative supported by the Arts Council of England’s New Audiences Fund, A Tale of Four Cities.  

Guide for new promoters – Jazz Services (2003)

This Guide for New Promoters [is] aimed at all under-represented forms of music, jazz being first off the starting block.  

The Musician’s Guide to Getting and Doing Gigs – NW Jazzworks

Advice on getting and doing gigs, focused on jazz musicians.  

Jazz in the North West – Kathy Dyson (2004)

Based on interviews with a broad range of jazz musicians and promoters, this report highlights the quality, quantity and diversity of jazz that is performed and promoted in the North West of England.  

Music Concerts and Festivals – UK – Mintel (2004)

Mintel’s report analyses trends in the music concert and festival industry in 2004.  

Music Concerts and Festivals – UK – Mintel (2006)

Mintel’s report analyses trends in the music concert and festival industry in 2006, featuring exclusive consumer research highlighting the main audiences for each genre.  

Music Concerts and Festivals – UK – Mintel (2008)

Market research firm Mintel’s report into the apparent boom in live music in the 21st-century.  

Nightclubs – UK – Mintel (2012)

Mintel’s report assesses the impact of the current weak economic recovery on the UK’s nightclub sector, as well as impending levies on the industry and how rising overheads are affecting business.  

Festival Tourism: International – Mintel (2005)

Mintel’s report into ‘festival tourism’ and its use as a marketing tool for tourist boards worldwide.  

Live Entertainment – UK – Mintel (2007)

Market research firm, Mintel’s report on the live entertainment market in 2007.  

DCMS Committee Report into the Licensing Act 2003 – DCMS Committee (2009)

A report from a public into the effects of the Licensing Act of 2003, partly in response to pressure from UK Music and the Live Music Forum.  

Live Music Act 2012 – UK Parliament (2012)

An Act of Parliament that removes some of the red tape imposed by the Licensing Act of 2003 and eases restrictions on the provision of live music.  

Doing Knowledge Transfer? Researching the UK festival industry in 2010 – Emma Webster (2010)

A paper that uses an account of producing a market report for Festival Awards to examine some of the issues arising from different understandings of ‘useful knowledge’ and the how to present it.  

Reflections on the Festival Business – Nod Knowles (2011)

General reflections on music festivals from a live music promotion practitioner, focusing on his experiences of Bath Festival.  

The Hope Collective: Challenging accepted music industry practices in Ireland – Michael Murphy (2011)

A paper illustrating how organisations can operate in the live music sphere with practices and ideologies distinct from commercial live music promoters, using Dublin’s Hope Collective as a case study.  

Live music: A local case study (Portsmouth in the 1960s) – Dave Allen (2011)

A paper that outlines an on-going project – ‘Pompey Pop’ – that documents popular music in and around the city of Portsmouth, from the end of the war in 1945 to 1969.  

‘Live music in Wales’: interim findings of a research project funded by the Welsh Assembly Government – Paul Carr (2011)

A report providing the foundations for a long term strategy of ensuring a successful and economically viable live music sector in Wales.  

Chastising and romanticising heavy metal subculture: Challenging the dichotomy with figurational sociology – Gary Sinclair (2011)

Paper discussing heavy metal and ‘moshing’ as being part of a ‘civilising process’, part of the process of informalisation and reflecting society’s increasing need for excitement.  

Music for Festivals: Mediation, re-mediation and re-intermediation – Danny Hagan (2011)

Paper exploring the processes of mediating amplified sound waves with a particular focus on sound engineers at festivals.  

Report on Licensing Act 2003: Impact – Live Music Forum (2007)

Analysis of the impact of the 2003 Licensing Act on the provision of Live Music in the UK.  

‘I Tote and I Vote’: Australian Live Music and Cultural Policy – Shane Homan (2011)

Using case studies from Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne, this paper shows the specific problems confronting live music, with regard to policy and implementation.  

Promoting live music in the UK: a behind the scenes ethnography – Emma Webster (2011)

Study on live music promoters, based on ethnographic research in Glasgow, Sheffield, and Bristol.  

Investigating the health of the UK folk club – Stephen Henderson (2011)

This research addresses the conflicting views of the health of folk music clubs using interviews with artists, agents, and folk club organisers/promoters.  

Report on Live Music Act- 2003- Impacts

Author(s): Live Music Forum Organisation / Affiliation: Live Music Forum Date: 04/07/2003 Source: Industry / Government Detailed analysis of the impact of the 2003 Live Music Act on the provision of Live Music in the U.K. Provides case studies of discrepancies between how the terms of the act itself and how they were perceived, by practitioners, the media and the public. …  

The History of Live Music in Britain, Volume 3: 1985-2009: From Live Aid to Live Nation – Simon Frith, Matt Brennan, Martin Cloonan and Emma Webster (forthcoming)

The third of three books detailing the history of live music in Britain since 1950.  

The History of Live Music in Britain, Volume 2: 1968-1984: From Hyde Park to the Hacienda – Simon Frith, Matt Brennan, Martin Cloonan and Emma Webster (forthcoming)

The second of three books detailing the history of live music in Britain since 1950.  

The History of Live Music in Britain, Volume 1: 1950-1967: From Dance Hall to the 100 Club – Simon Frith, Matt Brennan, Martin Cloonan and Emma Webster (2013)

The first of three books detailing the history of live music in Britain since 1950.  

“One more tune!” The encore ritual in live music events – Emma Webster (2012)

Article examining the role of the encore ritual within contemporary live music events.  

Having an impact? Academics, the music industries and the problem of knowledge – John Williamson, Martin Cloonan and Simon Frith (2011)

Article discussing higher education’s quest for ‘knowledge transfer’ in the face of ‘knowledge resistance’; academic methodologies and impartiality may not be what is required from the creative industries themselves.  

Live Music Matters – Simon Frith (2007)

Article on the importance of live music within the music industries and on the social functions of performance.  

King Tut’s Wah Wah Hut: initial research into a ‘local’ live music venue – Emma Webster (2010)

Article illustrating how King Tut’s Wah Wah Hut in Glasgow is inextricably linked to the global live music industries.  

Live music and music policy: some initial thoughts – Martin Cloonan (2010)

Initial findings and reflections upon the impact of live music on music policy.  

Constructing a Rough Account of British Concert Promotion History – Matt Brennan (2010)

A rough account of British concert promotion since 1955.  

Analysing Live Music in the UK: Findings One Year into a Three-Year Research Project – Simon Frith (2010)

An introduction to the findings of the live music project, upon which Live Music Exchange was founded.  

Live Music: An Academic Perspective – Simon Frith (2009)

Simon Frith provides an academic perspective of the value of live music and the main threats facing it.  

Promoting Business: DF Concerts – Martin Cloonan and Simon Frith (2010)

A case study of Scotland’s DF Concerts as a successful promotion business.  

Economic Insight 23: Adding up the music industry for 2010

Author(s): Will Page and Chris Carey Organisation / Affiliation: Performing Right Society Date: 08/04/2011 There were significant downturns in both recorded and live music, attributable to increased pressures on domestic income and, amongst other factors, the fact that many major touring acts were not on the road in 2010. UK music exports continue to grow, outstripping even the US Total …  

Economic Insight 15: Adding up the music industry for 2008

Author(s): Will Page Organisation / Affiliation: Performing Right Society Date: 20/07/2009 Report assessing the total value of the U.K music industry. Addresses methodological issues in creating such a figure and provides comparative date- including estimates of figures for different sectors. Notes the likely effect of the wider economic downturn. Total figure given as £3.6 billion for 2008. Live music grew …  

Economic Insight 20: Adding up the UK Music Industry for 2009 – Will Page/Chris Carey/PRS for Music

Report assessing the value of the entire UK Music industry including breakdowns by sector and geographic area.  

Economic Insight 24: A House Divided – Will Page/Stewart McKie/PRS for Music (2011)

Paper exploring the debate on discounting tickets and its effects on the live music industry, using case studies such as Groupon.  

Economic Insight 22: Wallet Share – Will Page/PRS for Music (2011)

This paper uses the concept of ‘wallet share’ to illustrate aggregate consumer spend on both live and recorded music, as a percentage of total consumer expenditure.  

Live Music Kit: On Stage – Musicians’ Union (2005)

A guide for owners and managers on how and why to use live music in their venues that includes practical advice and information on a range of subjects.  

Code of Practice for Outdoor/Large Venue Concerts – Musicians’ Union and the Association of British Orchestras (2002)

A basic guide to best practice which includes a list of factors to take into consideration when putting on large scale musical events.  

Audiences: What Keeps them Away: Promoters – Dave Cross/Generator (2000)

Research study into barriers to attendance for audiences of live popular music events in Newcastle Upon Tyne, based on promoter interviews.  

Audiences: What Keeps them Away: Survey of General Public – Dave Cross/Generator (2000)

Research study into barriers to attendance for audiences of live popular music events in Newcastle Upon Tyne, based on a survey of the general public.  

Audiences: What Keeps them Away: Focus Groups – Dave Cross/Generator (2000)

Research study into barriers to attendance for audiences of live popular music events in Newcastle Upon Tyne, based on focus groups.  

Report on Licensing Act 2003: Promotion of Live Music – Live Music Forum (2003)

Recommendations by Live Music Forum to the government on how it can better promote live music.  

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